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The Challenge of NFC for the DoD

NFC access card technology, via smart phones, like the Blackberry and iPhone. NFC is near field communication and is essentially two-way RFID, or radio frequency identification. NFC key cards are already in use in the hotel and airline industries, with downloadable room keys and boarding passes. Experts believe that eventually driver’s licenses and passport information will migrate to the NFC platform, but currently, there are too many problems with issuance, interoperability and security, that must be resolved first. One major issue for NFC-enabled mobile devices is that older cell phones do not have the installed chips. Existing smart phones without embedded NFC readers could work via Bluetooth tethering or a USB port.

The DoD put out a request for information in September of 2010, to start looking at NFC, to replace its Common Access Card and government employees’ PIV, or personal identity verification, credentials. Used by three million people for logical and physical access, the DoD CAC/PIV smartcard would be a big boon to the winning developer of the chip technology contract. The DoD is considering adding global payment, ATM access, and management of public transit service benefits to the card’s functionality. The DoD would also like to develop a debit card for military personnel, to be able to buy groceries both on and off base.

NFC is divided into two camps, open and secure. Open NFC allows for checking into hotel rooms, stores, or flights. Secure NFC enables financial transactions, whether through NFC access keys or NFC-enabled smartphones. The former can be developed much more rapidly than the latter because of the necessity of multiple layers of security and the complex nature of creating data protection software. Security is obviously the biggest concern for the DoD. Because of the many platforms and systems that support NFC, the potential for hackers and cyber-terrorists to develop viruses and malware is great.

Another problem, with NFC-enabled smartphones, is access control. PIN numbers and pattern codes for locking the phone are common, but the mechanism is usually optional. Any NFC mobile device approved for military use would need additional security layers. Some solutions to this are one-time passcode generators, biometrics, and GPS location tagging. The cameras on smartphones could be utilized for facial or iris recognition or fingerprint swiping. The phone’s GPS technology could flag fraudulent activity from individuals attempting to gain access from a computer that is far removed from the mobile device.

The rate of innovation for mobile apps is a further vulnerability in security. New versions of software are released at a frenetic pace and present problems for organizations trying to keep up. Imagine deploying and maintaining the technology over an organization the size of the Department of Defense. Whether the DoD goes with NFC-enabled smartphones or NFC access keys, it will certainly be a challenge. “>The U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) is considering replacing its Common Access Card with NFC access card technology, via smart phones, like the Blackberry and iPhone. NFC is near field communication and is essentially two-way RFID, or radio frequency identification. NFC key cards are already in use in the hotel and airline industries, with downloadable room keys and boarding passes. Experts believe that eventually driver’s licenses and passport information will migrate to the NFC platform, but currently, there are too many problems with issuance, interoperability and security, that must be resolved first. One major issue for NFC-enabled mobile devices is that older cell phones do not have the installed chips. Existing smart phones without embedded NFC readers could work via Bluetooth tethering or a USB port.

The DoD put out a request for information in September of 2010, to start looking at NFC, to replace its Common Access Card and government employees’ PIV, or personal identity verification, credentials. Used by three million people for logical and physical access, the DoD CAC/PIV smartcard would be a big boon to the winning developer of the chip technology contract. The DoD is considering adding global payment, ATM access, and management of public transit service benefits to the card’s functionality. The DoD would also like to develop a debit card for military personnel, to be able to buy groceries both on and off base.

NFC is divided into two camps, open and secure. Open NFC allows for checking into hotel rooms, stores, or flights. Secure NFC enables financial transactions, whether through NFC access keys or NFC-enabled smartphones. The former can be developed much more rapidly than the latter because of the necessity of multiple layers of security and the complex nature of creating data protection software. Security is obviously the biggest concern for the DoD. Because of the many platforms and systems that support NFC, the potential for hackers and cyber-terrorists to develop viruses and malware is great.

Another problem, with NFC-enabled smartphones, is access control. PIN numbers and pattern codes for locking the phone are common, but the mechanism is usually optional. Any NFC mobile device approved for military use would need additional security layers. Some solutions to this are one-time passcode generators, biometrics, and GPS location tagging. The cameras on smartphones could be utilized for facial or iris recognition or fingerprint swiping. The phone’s GPS technology could flag fraudulent activity from individuals attempting to gain access from a computer that is far removed from the mobile device.

The rate of innovation for mobile apps is a further vulnerability in security. New versions of software are released at a frenetic pace and present problems for organizations trying to keep up. Imagine deploying and maintaining the technology over an organization the size of the Department of Defense. Whether the DoD goes with NFC-enabled smartphones or NFC access keys, it will certainly be a challenge.

Questions You Need To Ask Yourself Before Pursuing Debt Settlement

It’s no secret that Americans are struggling financially. Massive layoffs, inflation, unaffordable healthcare, skyrocketing gas prices and hiked-up interest rates on credit card accounts are plunging millions of consumers to the brink of bankruptcy. However, many of the would-be bankrupt are turning to a less drastic solution to their debt problems: debt settlement.

A Super-Short History of Debt Settlement

Debt settlement is nothing new. It’s simply an agreement between two parties to settle a debt for less than the outstanding balance. Lenders have been doing this for hundreds of years, but the modern American banking industry started formalizing the practice after many of their customers starting falling behind in the late 1980s and early 1990s. These banks setup separate departments with specially-trained negotiators who contacted delinquent customers and offered them a lower pay-off amount to fully settle an overdue account.

Shortly afterward, entrepreneurs set up companies to help negotiate the best possible terms for financially distressed consumers trying to settle their debts. This marked the birth of the modern debt settlement industry. Thousands upon thousands of consumers flocked to debt settlement websites seeking more information and enrollment into a debt settlement program and debt settlement’s popularity as a bankruptcy alternative continues to grow.

There’s good reason for debt settlement’s popularity. For some, it can be the fastest and least expensive form of debt relief besides bankruptcy. According to most debt settlement company and information websites, a consumer may be able to settle all settlement-eligible debts for less than the full outstanding balance in less than three years.

Is Debt Settlement Right For You?

If you are struggling with your finances and looking down the cold barrel of bankruptcy, you should investigate debt settlement. However, debt settlement is not for everyone. So, you should try to fully understand how it works as well as the benefits and drawbacks of this debt relief option before enrolling into a debt settlement program or attempting to negotiate your own settlements. Here are some questions to ask yourself to help you gain this understanding.

1. Can I repay my debts?

If you can repay all of your debts in full, then you should. Debt settlement is only meant for people who are financially unable to fully repay their debts but who might be able to repay debts if the outstanding balances are reduced.

2. Am I experiencing a financial difficulty?

Not wanting to repay your debts is not a good reason to enter into debt negotiations and creditors often take financial hardships into consideration during negotiations. These hardships can include unemployment, loss of income, unexpected medical bills, illness or death in the family and divorce.

3. What kind of debts do I need to settle?

Debt settlement only works for unsecured debt, such as credit card accounts, medical debts and maybe some department store cards and other personal debts. Lenders historically do not negotiate or settle secured debts, such as home loans, automobile loans, student loans and other loans secured with collateral.

4. Can I save up and set aside some money each month?

While unable to fully repay your debts, you should be financially able to at least pay back a portion of your debts if you can save up and set aside some money each month. This amount should be less than the minimum monthly payments required by your creditors (if you can comfortable pay your minimum monthly payments, then debt settlement may not be right for you). However, even saving up and consistently setting aside this smaller amount each month will add up to a sum that you may be able to offer as a compromised payoff to settle a debt. It may take months, but if you are consistent and patient the funds will build up.

5. Can you function with a budget?

Being able to save up and set aside funds to pay off settlements will require you to operate within a tight budget. If you are not financially disciplined, then you should start learning how to be. Pursuing debt settlement is an honorable way to resolve a tough financial situation, but it does require discipline — and this means budgeting.

6. How much do I care about credit?

The debt settlement process can be damaging to your credit. This is because the process results in missed payments and accounts often go into charge-off before being settled. If you prize your credit score more than being debt-free, then you should consider getting a second or third job so you can fully repay all your debts and skip the debt settlement option (assuming you can keep this up for several years until all your debts are paid). Otherwise, be aware that negative marks can remain on your credit report for up to seven years (except for bankruptcy, which can stay on your credit report for up to ten years). However, as the negative mark gets older, it has less impact on your credit score.

7. Do I want to avoid bankruptcy?

Debt settlement is really about helping you repay your debts based on your limited financial ability and keeping you out of bankruptcy, assuming you want to avoid bankruptcy. This is important, because some people don’t mind the 10-year stain on their credit or the fact that they won’t be able to file Chapter 7 bankruptcy again for another eight years. Some people may not have a house they are trying desperately to save or don’t have to deal with the new provisions of the bankruptcy law that are designed to keep some people from filing bankruptcy. However, if the thought of filing bankruptcy doesn’t sit well with you and you are struggling to get by, then debt settlement might be just what you need.

8. Can I separate myself emotionally from my debts?

If you pursue debt settlement, your creditors are not going to be happy with you because they want you to pay all of your debt, plus interest, plus fees and plus whatever other finance charges they can dream up. You might end up getting calls from debt collectors and some debt collectors can be downright nasty. They often use guilt to get consumer to pay debts, even if that consumers doesn’t owe the debt or if the consumer doesn’t have the ability to pay. So, consumers pursuing debt settlement need to disassociate themselves emotionally from their debts, read up on the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act (FDCPA) and be vigilant about their goal to be debt-free.

9. Can I be patient?

We live in a culture of instant gratification. We expect our food to be prepared before we put the lids on our fountain drinks. Our mail has to absolutely be there overnight and we want our pizza in 30 minutes or less. Debt settlement doesn’t work this way. It will most likely take several months before you save up and set aside enough funds to start offering settlements to a creditor and it may take weeks or even months of negotiations before a creditor agrees.

If you pursue debt settlement, you have options. There are many debt settlement companies to choose from and even law firms that will negotiate your debt settlements for you. However, you should definitely investigate any company you consider, whether or not they are a professional service company or a law firm. These companies will charge you a fee for their services, so be sure to compare how they charge to make sure you are getting the best deal. Also check with the Better Business Bureau to see how each company handles complaints. You should also only deal with companies associated with industry organizations, such as The Association of Settlement Companies (TASC) and US Organizations for Bankruptcy Alternatives (USOBA).

Of course, you can always negotiate debt settlements on your own. All you need is the right information and there are kits you can purchase to guide you through the process. Just do a search for “diy debt settlement kit” or “do-it-yourself debt settlement kit” and you should find an affordable kit that will show you how to settle your own debts without spending hundreds or thousands of dollars in professional debt settlement service fees.

Ultimately, how you resolve your debt issues is up to you. If you are in debt up to your eyeballs and struggling to make ends meet, then you should do something. Debt doesnt sit; it grows with interest and fees and every dollar you owe in interest is a dollar you don’t have to pay towards rent, mortgage, food, education or family vacations. For your own personal and financial wellbeing, there’s nothing like being debt-free.

Electrostatic Precipitator (esp) For Thermal Power Plants

The increasing demand for electricity, owing to the growing population and economic development worldwide is the most important factor for the growth of the global ESP market. Thermal power is the dominant source of energy in the world, and although its share is expected to decrease in future, it will still remain as one of the most important sources of power. With many new coal fired plants scheduled to come online in the near future, the ESP market is expected to grow and experience increased activity.

The global financial crisis in late 2008, did not help matters and the growth of the market suffered a substantial blow. The financial crisis led to a liquidity crunch in most parts of the world and a loss of confidence amongst investors. This also affected the growth of the ESP market which suffered considerably. Currently, the ESP market has shown signs of picking up, with markets all over the world,slowly but gradually stabilizing. The growth is mainly driven by countries in the Asia-Pacific region.

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The ESP market is completely dominated by dry ESPs. Wet ESPs had just a marginal share in the overall ESP market in terms of revenues. The wet type of precipitators is mostly used for industrial purposes,rather than in utility/power plants. The dry ESPs enjoyed more than 90% share of revenues, in terms of installations being made in power plants, in almost all major countries. However, they were a few installations of wet ESP done in the power plants in the country.

The global ESP market is characterized by stiff competition among the top global players. The equipment requires huge investments, expertise in manufacturing and also a substantial brand name to be able to market the equipment and stay on top of the competition. This requires substantial financial strength and hence the market is mostly dominated mostly by the global organizations. With the regular contracts in the
ESP business being particularly hard to get, the smaller organization have found it difficult to operate in the market.

GlobalData’s power offering “Electrostatic Precipitator (ESP) for Thermal Power Plants Global Market Size, Equipment Market Share and Competitive Landscape Analysis to 2020″ gives detailed information on the global ESP market and provides growth projections for both wet and dry ESP up to 2020. The research also analyzes trends in the global ESP market and also detailed analysis for the leading countries in the ESP business. This coupled with competitive benchmarking of the top market participants provides a comprehensive understanding of the markets competitive scenario.

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Europe: +44 207 753 4299
+44 1204 543 533
Asia Pacific: +91 40 6616 6782

The Worldwide Taxi

London, U.K.
The drivers of Londons black cabs learn their trade the hard way. In order to get their famous green badge, the drivers have to complete The Knowledge. Getting this qualification involves getting on a moped and memorizing every street within six miles of Charing Cross. Taxi drivers are regulated by the Metropolitan Police, and discipline is very important. Exams are conducted with military formality and cabbies are often extremely nervous beforehand. Nevertheless, its worth it. Although the minimum fare is only 1.50, the drivers weekly wage can be up to 800, making Londons cabbies possibly the best paid in the world.

Mexico City, Mexico
In Mexico, the quality of your taxi depends on financial status. If youve got plenty of money, you can ride in a big air-conditioned saloon. If not, you have to take the cheaper option- a Mexican-made Volkswagen Beetle. Beetle cabs are not necessarily cheerful, despite their bright yellow paint (all other Beetles there are dirty brown). The fares are cheap, starting at sixty pence, but the drivers regard cheating customers as quite normal so you may end up paying quite a bit. Because prices in Mexico go up so quickly, the cabs meter is worthless as soon as it is installed, so cabbies do their own mental calculations to work out the correct price. On average they earn about 70 a week.

Mahajanga, Madagascar
In towns, the most popular taxi is pousse-pousse, a kind of rickshaw pulled by teenaged boys. Madagascans speak French, but why call a rickshaw a push-push? Well, when these boys are climbing up a hill they shout out to passers-by to get behind the cart and pousse, pousse! You only pay a minimum fare of five pence and since the drivers only make 3.50 a week, you can understand why they ask for the help.

Hong Kong
Hong Kongs rickshaw boys – who are usually around the age of 60 – are a dying breed. This is because the city has decided to stop using rickshaws. The last licence was issued in 1975. Nowadays, 4 is the minimum fare for a rickshaw ride. In 1950 there were 8,000 rickshaw boys, but now therere only 20, so it is not surprising that they consider themselves an endangered species. They pay no attention to traffic laws, red lights are always ignored, they often go to wrong way down one-way streets and even pull their embarrassed passengers down pedestrian subways all this for 280 per week! These days rickshaws are used chiefly by tourists.

Fez, Morocco
Most of Moroccos grand taxis are Mercedes limousines, which cater for long journeys between cities. For shorter trips most rely on tetits taxis, which are mainly small European cars and are far cheaper, with a minimum fare of 1.50. Drivers make about 45 per week. Typical cars are the Fiat 124 and late-sixties Simca 1000 (which has an engine in the back rather than the front). These cars are confined to the city limits. To stop them straying, the cars are color-coded: red with a black roof signifies the city of Fez.

Surakarta, Indonesia
Indonesian bicycle rickshaws – called becaks- are unique in that the passengers sit at the front. This can be terrifying because the passengers take the impact of any head- on collisions Of course with a minimum fare of only twenty pence, it can be said that you get what you pay for.
The drivers, who earn about 5 per week, are reckless. Perhaps thats why the use of becaks is now forbidden in the capital, tourist- conscious Jakarta.

Venice, Italy
Gondolas have been a feature of Venetian life since the 16th century and working as a gondolier used to be a profession that you couldnt get into unless you knew somebody who was already a gondolier – a relative, for example. Two years ago everything changed and now its much more democratic. Training is difficult, since gondoliers are tested not only on skill but also on their knowledge of Venetian history, geography and culture. Of course with a weekly wage about 450, its worth studying a bit. A journey in gondola will cost you at least 28, so be prepared to pay.

Guidelines To Pass Cemap Courses

As is known to many, passing the Certificate in Mortgage Advice & Practice (CeMAP) exams will give the aspirant the knowledge and the widely recognized qualification to embark on a professional career in the Financial Services sector. It is a fact that in order to give advice to the public, it is mandatory that each and every mortgage consultant should possess CeMAP qualification.

Mortgage industry is a wide industry and therefore the syllabus for CeMAP exams is also expansive. The course comprises of financial services, assets, interest rates and products. The candidate should have thorough knowledge about the mortgage products, financial instruments, interest rates and other relevant statutes compiled by the industry. There are no minimum academic qualification requirements to join a CeMAP course. All that is required is a strong aptitude and love for the profession.

As it is, there is a serious dearth for CeMAP trained professionals that the job market for anybody freshly capable undergoing CeMAP training will continue to be buoyant.

The CeMAP qualification consists of three exams – CeMAP 1, CeMAP 2 and CeMAP 3 as outlined below:

CeMAP 1 Introduction to Financial Services & Products and UK Regulation:

CeMAP 1 is divided into two units Unit 1 is a complete overview of the financial services market and many candidates find this exam to be tough as it covers various aspects of financial services. Unit 2 is concerned with the regulation of the financial services industry. You have to answer 50 multiple choice questions in each unit within one hour and the pass marks are 35 (70%).

CeMAP 2 Assessment of Mortgage Advice and Knowledge:
CeMAP 2 consist of four units where Unit 3 involves the law in relation to mortgages, Unit 4 covers mortgage applications, Unit 5 deals with mortgage repayments and products and Unit 6 outlines post completion issues. Each unit contains 25 multiple choice questions and you should get 17 correct answers on each unit (68%).

CeMAP 3 Synoptic Paper:

In CeMAP 3 you need to answer 10 questions on each of 6 case studies which make a total of 60 questions. To clear the exam you need to answer correctly 42 questions out of 60(70%). The content of CeMAP 3 is same as the CeMAP 2.

Preparations for CeMAP exams can be done either by attending training centers or through home study. Home study CeMAP is the most suitable training mode for those who do not have time to go to coaching institutes. There are several extensive online training courses available for those who want to do self-study. The most important benefit of home study courses is it allows you to study at your own speed.

However the most effective and assured way to get success in CeMAP exam is to attend some CeMAP training courses. Added to this, you can also prepare for CeMAP exams using CeMAP revision guides or books available in the market.

Bestow equal attention to all the three sections. You have 2 hours to complete your whole paper consisting of 6 case studies all consisting of 10 multiple choice questions, so allot 20 minutes on each case study. Omit those questions you are not sure of the answers initially and return to them before you move onto the next case study.

Rent To Own Real Estate – Positive Or Negative

Banks may not be lending but rent to own homes are booming! Rent to own homes are becoming pretty commonplace, owner financing also known as seller financing is a real estate financing technique where the buyer borrows from the seller as opposed to, or in addition to a bank.

Rent to own homes are becoming a typical way to sell a property due to the fact that it is problematic to sell properties in this economic crisis. Most of these rent to own homes are fsbo, for sale by owner. Frequently, finding a real estate agent who is willing to work with rent to own homes can be difficult for buyers and sellers. Occasionally, finding rent to own homes can be kind of hard to do.

There are various ways in which rent to own homes can come about. Generally, rent to own homes are seller financed by landlords or investors that seek to enhance their financial return by offering purchase choices to their tenants in exchange for a reasonable deposit and a rental rate premium. The majority of sellers of rent to own homes are considerably reasonable when it comes to the down payment. Sellers of rent to own homes will expect you to have bumpy credit and will know how to help. Usually, these owners with rent to own homes can compete and make the best home and terms available for you. Frequently, rent to own homes are in marvelous condition, most homes are less than 5-10 years old and at bare minimum have just been renovated. Any way you look at it, rent to own homes are an immediate answer and an intelligent alternative to traditional loans.

Due to the significant initial down payment and lease payment premium that are unique to lease option contracts, rent to own homes can be considerably risky. Common lease periods for this arrangement are three years long, though longer or shorter leases for rent to own homes are not altogether unheard of. Really, rent to own homes will allow you to finally begin earning equity in a home now. Again, if you are interested in a rent to own program then you can expect to put 5-10% of the loan amount down or if are interested in buying residential real estate properties that are selling below market value then leasing or doing rent to own with tenant buyers then rent to own is for you.

Rent to own homes can be a wonderful way to buy or sell a house in the current economic environment. Rent to own homes are a certain way to increase the financial stability of a person, and help him repair his credit. Rent to own homes are long-term rental agreement that can allow a person to buy a home with minimal financial stress. Rent to own homes are a great way for people to give home ownership a shot without actually having to get a loan. The negotiation routine of rent to own homes will be different from normal home bargaining.

Rent to own homes can potentially be a great or poor deal, depending on the contract obtained at the very beginning of the agreement. Rent to own homes can help the seller still acquire some income from the home when otherwise it may be a constant drain on the seller’s finances. Rent to own homes are a trial run for the tenant as they learn the responsibilities that come with the house. Individuals living in the rent to own homes will be expected to take care of the lawn as if it is their own and pay utilities. Rent to own homes are also a good way for you to build equity before you even own the home.

Rent to own homes can be found advertised online, in newspapers, or on street signs. Besides that, rent to own homes are available in almost any neighborhood or subdivision across the United States, but there could be a hidden risk to your arrangement, and the money you put up for a down payment. Commonly, rent to own homes can also be the perfect solution for those who have gone through bankruptcy, divorce or any other types of financial hardships that may prohibit them from meeting stringent requirements put fourth by banks and other lenders. Rent to own homes can essentially help you get into a house without having to go through all the hassles that are regularly involved.

Company Secretary Courses And Subjects

Company Secretary Courses

The Company Law Board initiated a course in the year 1960 which is a Diploma in Company Secretary ship by the Government. As a result, the Institute of Company Secretaries of India stretched in the year 1969. These come under the regulation of the Companies Act in 1956 of Section 25. As per the Act of 1980, this was converted into a constitutional organization.

The Course lineup the knowledge in the field of legal affairs and commercial economic filed with the contemporary practice.
The aim of this Course’s is to expand and control the business.

* Foundation Course – 1st Stage: This is for the individual; he should pass the exam of Higher Secondary to meet up the eligibility criteria.

* Intermediate Course – 2nd Stage: The Intermediate Course which the individual should pass the foundation phase.

* Final Course – Last Stage/Final Course: The Final Course which the individual should clear all the two stages accurately to become a successful Company Secretary.

These are the all the 3 stages to be successfully completed

Eligibility Criteria:

Who and how an individual can pursue

* One should have passed his/her Higher Secondary examination or Intermediate Examination in order to pursue the Company Secretary courses.

* Those who are already a graduate and have cleared post graduation in Cost Accountancy or Chartered Accountancy has an advantage which is they can directly apply for the Intermediate stage of company secretary.

Training after Courses of Company Secretary:

After successfully clearing all the stages of the examinations; candidates have to go for a practical training for 16 months in order that the individual becomes the member of the Institute of the CSI and the person will be allocated a Professional Membership Number.

Extra Qualities:

* The person must be devoted and he/she should accomplish the good writing and speaking English skills

* He/she should also attain a moral character

* He/she should be able to understand the strategies and policies of the company. In a straight way he/she should become diplomatic person and should also be intellectual, elegant, loyal and meticulous as well.

Subjects Covers:

* Basic Economics
* Business Communication
* English
* Financial Accounting
* Company Law
* Management Accounting
* General and Commercial Law
* Corporate Secretarial practice
* Banking and Insurance
* World Trade Organization
* Corporate Restructuring
* Human Resource Management and Industrial Relation
* International Trade
* Joint Ventures and Foreign Collaborations and many more

Understanding How Energy-Efficient Windows Work

If you’re building a new home or remodeling an existing one, you’ve probably thought about installing energy-efficient windows. They look pretty similar to regular windows, so you’ve probably also wondered how exactly they work and how it’s possible that they could save you money and increase the comfort of your home. There are actually a couple of different techniques that manufacturers use to get the desired result.

Coatings

Low-emissivity coatings, or low-E, reflect the rays of the sun away from your house, keeping a fair amount of heat from getting inside. Regular glass absorbs about 84% of the sun’s heat rays, while glass treated with a low-E coating absorbs less than 35%. These coatings also work to keep the warm air in as well, and since this technology is see-through, it doesn’t obscure your view or the beauty of natural light. There are several glazing options and tints to further maximize the solar reflection of the glass.

Spacers

The spacer’s main function is separate the two glass panes in the unit, and it helps to provide relief from the stresses that come along with expansion and compression due to differences in temperature. Spacers also provide a moisture barrier, a seal, and an insulation barrier. While they’re still commonly made of metal, they’re also being produced more widely from alternative materials like silicone, vinyl, and fiberglass. Warm-edge spacers have the added bonus of creating a larger thermal effect, expanding the area affected beyond the edge of the window.

Gas Fills

Manufacturers use inert gases, usually argon or krypton, to improve the thermal performance of the unit. These gases aren’t toxic, and they’re also clear and odorless, which makes them the perfect choice for this application. Of the two gases, krypton works better, but it’s more expensive. It’s also the most useful for thinner glazing areas that are less than a half an inch. Argon, on the other hand, works in a normal half-inch glazing. These two gases can also be mixed for a compromise between cost and production. The chosen gas or gases are placed between the two panes as an added barrier between your home and the elements outside.

Frames

When deciding on which of the many different kinds of energy-efficient windows available, you’ll also want to think about the kinds of frames you choose as well. You may want to consider a non-metal, thermally improved frame to optimize your investment.

While these home features seem like an obvious choice, understanding exactly how these windows work will help you choose the right ones for your home, your aesthetic, and your lifestyle.

Looking for energy-efficient windows? Portland residents can learn more about their available options by visiting http://www.advancedenergyoregon.com/.

Is The Eurozone Falling Apart

The Eurozone is also called the Euro area because of what it stands for. This union is made of 17 countries, members of the European Union which agreed to adopt the same currency and the same legal tender. This turns the Eurozone into a monetary and economic union. When the Eurozone was established back in 1999 it represented one of the first things that pointed out towards the tendency of globalization. Is this tendency no longer wanted? Do European leaders no longer want to be united under the same currency? Or is the Euro the cause of the current financial problems and maintaining this union can no longer be profitable or safe?

All these questions started to worry leaders from the Eurozone and not only. Even though the 17 countries that are part of this union are the ones directly involved and affected by a possible falling apart, the other European countries or states from other continents are very likely to suffer from the consequences of such a breakup too.

Most financial specialists say that the main cause of a possible Eurozone crash is the huge debts many of the 17 countries cannot pay back. The fact that Greece was threatened by a default and that only another loan was able to postpone what some consider the inevitable makes things even worse. Analysts say that this financial crisis resembles the incurable diseases called cancer. If it is ignored it doesnt go away. Instead it spreads until the patient dies. If the patient is the Eurozone, only an intense treatment can save the Euro and the economies of the states that adhered to it.

There are some investors who speculate that the end of the Eurozone is close and try to find ways of making money out of this crush. Some of the financial analysts say that it is because of these people who speculate for their own interest that the Euro is threatened and that the Eurozone can fall apart. In spite of that, there are obvious signs that things are not as they should be and that the common currency might cause more problems than help.

Investors get scared of all the negative news they hear and try to do their best to preserve their wealth. Many of them fear that keeping money in banks is not a good solution and choose to invest in assets that have high intrinsic value. Many of them choose to invest in gold or other precious metals that are the only hard assets that seemed to increase their value these days. They are making the right decisions since buying gold has, is and will always be a profitable investment.

Dubai Culture And Women – Do’s And Don’ts

The family unit in the United Arab Emirates is an important social unit for an Arab. Loyalty to family or surname influences all aspects of family life and society United Arab Emirates. The Arab honor and respect for his family, particularly children. Therefore, it is very paternalistic, patriarchal and hierarchical, with elders and parents who make the decisions.

UAE national families are large, with families citing God going from one to procreate. Therefore, the bigger the better, giving economic and spiritual benefit. Children, when growing older are expected to care for parents, especially for children that much to bear the financial burden, if necessary. Also, it is noted thatlarger families demonstrate the virility of the father.

As far as fidelity passes, family comes first, then clan and tribe. The UAE nationals also reflect national identity and, moreover, are proud of their culture. There is also a strong loyalty to the royal families. Demonstrating this includes photos of the leaders in all walks of life. The UAE Nationals his beloved founding father, Sheikh Zayed, and there was massive show of grief over his death. The people still comment on their generosity for what he did for them and for the construction of the UAE.

Women

Women are respected in the UAE society, as they are the ones who bring life in the world, and raise children. This perception is lost in the west, where it is seen that they are subordinate to men, but increasingly, woman are most prominent in the workplace and in other walks of life. Some guidelines for the West are: respect for privacy and the role of women in society; stand when a woman enters the room, and I understand that there are many households in different areas of residence, so that when you visit a house, you wouldn’t socialize with women.

Things that men should not include:
– Do not talk publicly professionals UAE National Women, unless it is business related. You will understand that when they are allowed to cross the limit, when approached to discuss other matters
– Do not shake hands with a UAE National female, unless prompted.
– Suffice it to say, not flirting, touching or embracing women
– Do not look at women or maintain eye contact
– Do not ask an Arab man about his wife or female members of his family

of course, it’s better to be strict in yourself first, to understand the situation, and with Western values, and an increasingly diverse society to make up, things are changing, but traditions remain and what is best to take this into account.